Each consumer fireworks device must bear a cautionary label to warn users of the potential risk of injury associated with the product and provide instructions for using the fireworks devices properly. In order to assist manufacturers in complying with the cautionary labeling requirements, AFSL incorporated into the AFSL Standards specific cautionary labeling for each category of 1.4G consumer fireworks. A copy of the Standards is available to AFSL members at no charge and to non- AFSL members for a nominal charge.
In some instances, the AFSL caution labels differ somewhat from the labels published in the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s (CPSC) regulations. The reason is that the AFSL Standards Committee added provisions to enhance the minimum requirements established by CPSC. Any label that complies with the AFSL provisions is considered by CPSC to be in compliance with the CPSC requirements as well.
I. LABEL WORDING
Every fireworks device must bear a cautionary label that typically includes the following elements:
A. A Signal Word. This is designed to attract the user’s attention that the information is important and should be read. Typically the signal word will be either “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The signal word “WARNING” typically is used for items that present the potential for more serious injuries. It normally is required on any item that explodes, produces a report, or shoots a projectile into the air. Included are Rockets, Missiles, Helicopters, Reloadable Tube Devices, Comets, Mines and Shells, Roman Candles, and Firecrackers.
Items that pose a less severe potential hazard require the “CAUTION” statement of hazard. Included are such items as Fountains, novelty items, Sparklers, Smoke Devices, Party Poppers, etc.
The signal word must be in larger, more prominent type size than other cautions such as the statement of hazard and instructions for use.
B. Statement of Hazard. The statement of hazard is designed to warn the user of the specific aspect of the item’s operation that may result in the potential for injury. A statement of hazard includes statements such as: “FLAMMABLE,” “SHOOTS FLAMING BALLS WITH REPORTS,” “SPINS ON GROUND,” “EMITS SHOWERS OF SPARKS,” etc.
C. Instructions for Use. Instructions for use provide the product user with appropriate information as to how the product should be operated and precautions that should be taken to avoid potential injuries associated with the product. Normally, the instructions for use will include the following statements:
EMITS CRACKLING SPARKS
USE ONLY UNDER CLOSE ADULT SUPERVISION.
FOR OUTDOOR USE ONLY.
PLACE UPRIGHT ON LEVEL SURFACE (or other appropriate instructions for placing the item for ignition).
DO NOT HOLD IN HAND (except for hand-hel items). LIGHT FUSE AND GET AWAY.
PLACE UPRIGHT ON LEVEL SURFACE (or oter appropriate instructions for Other statements to be included in the caution label will depend on the type of product and the manner in which it performs.
The signal word and statement of hazard must appear on each principal display panel of the fireworks item. In addition, each principal display panel must bear either the remaining cautionary labeling information or instructions to “Carefully Read Cautionary Statements on ______ [insert either side panel, rear panel or back panel, as appropriate].” In such a case, the full cautionary labeling statement, including signal ord and statement of hazard required by the AFSL Standard for the product must appear on the referenced side, rear, or back panel.
“Principal display panel” (PDP) is defined as the portion of each item, and that portion of each retail package, that “bears the labeling designed to be most prominently displayed, shown, presented, or examined under conditions of retail sale.” Therefore, a box-type item that has an item name and/or graphics prominently displayed on all four sides must bear a warning label on each side. If the name and/or graphics appear on only one panel, only that panel must bear a warning label. If an item has prominent graphics on one side panel without the product name, but has the product name without graphics in simple text on another panel, both panels could be considered principal display panels.
This interpretation also holds for the retail package. Note: If the retail package has a clear wrapper, and a complete warning label on an individual unit package is clearly legible through the wrapper, no additional warning label is required on the outside wrapper or package.
For cylindrical items, the PDP is interpreted to mean 40% of the total surface area of the cylinder, centered at the name of the item. If the warning label appears directly beneath the name of the item, there is no question as to compliance.
For unusually shaped devices, such as frogs, chickens, vases, etc., use the side that will be displayed for retail sale as the PDP.
III. CONSPICUOUSNESS AND PROMINENCE
All cautionary labeling must appear in legible type which is in contrast with the background as well as with other printed matter on the item.
Color – Use an ink for the printing that contrasts well with the paper. For example, black letters on a dark blue background are not acceptable, whereas black or dark blue type on a white background should always be acceptable. The background for the warning label should be clear and free of any portion of the design, pictures, or other printed matter on the label.
Border – The signal word, statement of hazard, and the other cautionary information must be placed together within a square or rectangular area (with or without a border) on each PDP (of each item and each retail package). The caution label must be clearly separated from all other wording printed on the item.
Horizontal Placement – The warning label must be printed in lines parallel to the base of the item. (“Base” refers to the base on which the item rests when it is displayed for retail sale.) In those instances where the required cautionary labeling appears on a panel other than the principal display panel, the other cautionary information may appear in lines parallel to other printing on that panel, rather than parallel to the base. This parallel requirement does not apply to narrow-diameter cylinders, where the printing may run lengthwise on the cylinder.
IV. TYPE SIZE REQUIREMENTS
The proper, minimum type size to use for a warning label depends on the area of the PDP of the item. This area must be calculated for each item.
For square or rectangular items, the entire side or panel that bears the name of the item is the PDP. To calculate the PDP area, multiply the length of the base times the height of the item.
For triangular, hexagonal, or other geometric figures with rectangular panels, select the panel (or each panel) that bears the name of the item. Multiply the length of the side bearing the item name times the height of the item to determine the PDP areas.
For cylindrical items, PDP area is calculated by multiplying the height times the diameter times 1.26, PDP Area of Cylinder = Height x diameter x 1.2
For irregularly shaped items, you must use your best judgment to determine the PDP area. Contact the AFSL office if you have any questions.
Minimum Type Size
Once you have calculated the area of the PDP, use the table below to determine the minimum type size for the warning label. It is certainly permissible and advisable whenever possible to use a type size larger than the minimum. This might provide a “safety factor” should the printed type fall a little short of your specifications.
V. EXCEPTIONS FOR VERY SMALL DEVICES
In cases where individual items are too small to accommodate the required cautions (and only in such cases), the required labeling may appear on the retail package in complying type size and placement, rather than on each item, provided that the entire, unbroken package is sold to the retail customer as a unit. Whenever possible, individual items must bear at least the signal word and statement of hazard, with “Carefully Read Instructions on Package” also printed on each item.
VI. SPECIAL LABELING FOR ASSORTMENT PACKAGES
Assortment packages containing a variety of fireworks categories or types must bear the following labeling on the assortment packaging. Requirements for placement, conspicuousness, type size, described above are applicable.
Source From American Fireworks Standards Laboratory：https://www.afsl.org/node/31153